Proposal for Research into
Why Males Enter the Teaching Profession
The following is the proposal I submitted for the research that became my M.Ed. thesis.  It is a decent example of how to write a proposal and, compared with the final version of the thesis, offers some insight into the research process in that there is an embarrassing level of naïveté reading back over this!  Also, the version below was salvaged from an earlier draft.  The final version is apparently lost to the mists of time and corrupted data.

This page begins with a related document: the request for exemption from oversight for experiments involving human participants.  Most universities have their own form along these lines, but here is what I used.



Consideration for Exemption from IRB Oversight
1. Title (working): Why do men become secondary teachers?

2. Investigator: "Alexplorer", Holmes program master's student.
    Project Director: Dr. James Wandersee.

3. Description of Study:
a. purpose of study:
To identify motivational factors which led males into a career in secondary education (particularly why these males did not enter elementary education or educational administration).

b. description of subjects:
All subjects are male teachers at the secondary or middle school level.

c. justification for using this subject population:
These males entered into a career in a portion of education which is the least gender stratified.  Why did they not choose an area which was more "accepted" (i.e. administration) or go into an area which males are a greater minority (i.e. elementary education).

d. subject recruitment procedures:
Inform potential subjects of the nature of the study and its value.  Inquire whether the individual would be willing to participate.  If willing, provide participant w/ consent form.

e. detailed description of procedures to be used:
A semi-structured interview (based around a set of questions which may be elaborated on or re-phrased to better obtain pertinent answers) will be conducted and recorded.  Recordings will be transcribed and analyzed for common themes.

f. description of the procedure for obtaining consent of subjects or of parent/guardians and assent of minor subjects:
All subjects are adults.  Consent form is attached. (see Appendix A near bottom of page).

g. description of the procedures to be used to protect the identity and privacy of the subjects:
A first name pseudonym will be assigned to each subject in the write-up of the research.

h. procedures to be used in the study:
Interviews will be conducted individually and recorded at a location of the subjects' choosing.

i. debriefing procedures:
Subjects will be told the nature and purpose of the study ahead of time.  No secrecy will be employed during the research except between subjects identity will be concealed.

j. any potential risks to subjects and measures to be used to minimize risks:
No obvious risks are present.  A list of possible questions is attached for examination to confirm this.  On the participant consent form (also attached) subjects are informed of they right to withdraw at any time without penalty.


ABSTRACT

The histories of male teachers were examined in semi-structured interviews to explore their motivations for entering the profession of teaching, specifically in their subject area and in the particular grade of the majority of the students they teach.

Abstract
The teaching profession in this country has historically been comprised of women.  Males are the exception in the classroom, although this share of the teaching force has gradually been moving toward a more even distribution of the sexes (Almanac).  This study proposes to explore what personal decisions led those scarce males to enter the profession in the first place through case studies, interviews, journal analysis, and autobiography by the researcher himself.  Aside from this researcher, other subjects will include science and/or math teachers.


Problem

 What steps lead to a man becoming a teacher?  Why would a male with a degree in one of the sciences give up a career in private industry or a governmental agency?  Degree holders in science are predominately male and their chances of advancement in the workplace is considerably greater than their female counterparts.  Why, then, would a male enter the underpaid profession of teaching?  Advancement is minimal compared with other careers and society demonstrates little respect for the profession as a whole.

At the college level males dominate the professorship at 75% (Street, 1995), in secondary education only around 50% (Lee, 1995), and even fewer males in elementary (the average for secondary and elementary combined is around 34%).  It seems society is placing males in the more prestigious areas of teaching.  We tell our males that if they absolutely must teach for a living they should teach at the college level, not to children.

However, research suggests that male teachers typically have better control over classrooms than their female counterparts, particularly where the student body is largely or entirely composed of males (Lee, 1993).  For this reason it would be advantageous to attract more males into teaching, especially in the lower grades where behavior management is more of a issue than in the college classroom.

There has been an enormous amount of interest for several decades now into how and why male students score better than their female classmates in math and science and what impact this has on society.  In addition, there has been a great deal of research dedicated to teacher interaction with students, most of it apparently interested more in the sex of the student, than that of the teachers.

Research into educative administration focuses heavily on the preponderance of males in the positions of principal and assistant principal.  However, considering the fact that the major portion of schools' payrolls are devoted to teachers, there is insufficient research into the character of the teacher population.

For all this exploration into the roles of gender and education, one would image that there certainly must have been some insight into the role of gender in teaching.  However, there exists no study of either a qualitative or quantitative nature which attempts to account for the significant gender bias of the educating workforce.  The exploration of a profession such as education to which such a blatant stereotype is attached is necessary.

The gender roles associated with teaching naturally contribute to the teacher population.  Males are frowned upon for entering a very rewarding profession.  "Why don't you get a real job?  With a degree like yours, you could make some real money?"  Male teachers are looked upon as individuals in the process of finding more lucrative lines of work.

However, there must be something that causes the 34% of the total teaching population to move into this field contrary to tradition (Almanac).  Exploring the personal choices that lead others to the ultimate decision to teach would better help teachers dissatisfied with their own lives


I. Previous Research
There is an enormous amount of theory and even more research concerning the differences between male and female students.  However, there is relatively little thought given to the differences between teachers of either gender.  My research will attempt to uncover patterns of influence that lead to a male's decision to enter the traditionally "feminine" profession of teaching.

Though some of these articles are older and their findings may not be comparable to those of current research, they provide insight into methods that may be applicable here and ideas which have been abandoned, but have begun to gain relevancy in these changing times.  For a topic such as this one and a society as fluid as the one in which we live, ideas may fall in and out of vogue, but they may re-acquire the potential to become a viewpoint central to this research.  Also, these articles bring up issues which may be relevant albeit indirectly to research on gender differences in career choice.


Gender Roles

Street, Kromley, and Kimmel (1995) found that at the university level the gender ideals among faculty were shifted to the masculine side.  Among the 400 faculty members surveyed both men and women described an androgynous individual as an ideal professor.  Similarly, faculty women described themselves as androgynous while men on staff described themselves as masculine.  At the secondary level it seems it is the reverse of the university level and even more so as the elementary level.  The university faculty has long been a man's world.  Considering 73% of the full-time faculty are male it is not surprising that there is a bias as well in the gender perceptions of its constituents.

This perception is described in a number of occupations by Glick, Wilk, and Perreault (1995).  In their study, these researchers plotted one hundred jobs across two axes, gender type and prestige/intelligence, based on ratings given by their subjects.  Research by O'Dowd and Beardslee (1960) and Gottfredson (1981) confirms that the images of jobs are actually images of individuals who hold those jobs rather than of the tasks actually performed on the job.  Therefore, the gender character of an occupation is defined by the dominant character of its employees rather than what the job entails on a daily basis.

Glick's 1995) study found that the higher in education a teacher is employed the more masculine in character the job is perceived.  Kindergarten teachers were perceived as the most feminine while professors were considered the most masculine (though curiously still just on the feminine side of the gender perception line).  High school teachers were placed in the middle by the participants.

Evaluating instructors
Is there a bias inherent in students' perception of their instructors or are all instructors held to the same set of criteria by their students?  Are female instructors held to a higher standard of "warmth" by their students?  Are they forced to give students more personal attention in order to earn the same mark received by a stand-offish male instructor? Bennett's (1982) examination of what basis at the college instructors evaluated on concluded that there is no bias in student evaluations of male and female instructors, but that students perceive greater warmth and charisma in instructors who are women.  The difference in evaluation comes outside of class where female instructors are held to a greater expectation of accessibility and support.

Previous work in this area categorized styles of teaching as "masculine" and "feminine," describing styles which were active, aggressive, and direct as opposed to passive, facilitating, and listening.  The absence of work in this area to resolve whether there is a gender stereotyping or prejudice at work here is in part the purpose of Bennet's study.

Basow and Distenfield (1985) found that at the college level instructors of either sex may be evaluated by different sets of standards.  Male teachers who were less expressive than their female counterparts scored negatively in this study when compared with female instructors who were more expressive.  Further, female instructors who were the least expressive scored the highest of the groups representing the possible combinations of expressiveness and gender.


Student Teachers

In Thompson and Ellis' study (1984) the researchers identified and compared different type and sources of anxieties experienced by male and female secondary student teachers.  The purpose of the study was to examine the sources of these anxieties, how frequently they occurred, and whether they were experienced before the internship or during.  One unexplained finding of this study was that female interviewees experienced a significantly greater number of anxieties than their male counterparts participating in the study.  However, both male and female student teachers experienced more anxiety before beginning their internship than during.  How either group coped with the anxieties was not explored.


Theory

 O'Kelly (1980) reports that research on the roles of teachers has not been performed primarily because it is considered a female-dominated occupation.  Second, the professional aspect of the teacher's role has been ignored because researchers have been "blinded by the sexist assumption that these female workers are not primarily professionals, but rather are wives and mothers who also do some work as teachers” (p. 18).  O'Kelly (1980) summarizes Brown's work in the area.  The sexual division of labor is common throughout societies across the world.  Childbearing and rearing help tie women down to the domestic sphere and hinder their participation in the public sphere.

Society partitions our lives through perceptions of professions and gender and their often imagined interconnectedness.  Yet Richmond-Abbott (1983) points out that, whether for good or bad, male and female teachers do not behave a great deal differently, at least in studies concerning how teachers of both genders reinforced the sex roles of their students.


How did teaching get to be "Women's Work"?:

 One major reason teaching is considered a "feminine" profession is because it has historically been structured such that it is convenient for women's lives as wives and mothers.  The compressed workday coincides with children's school hours and work can be found close to home.  The low pay is presumably a trade-off for compatibility with caring for children. (Lorber, 1994)  Stockard reports (1980) that an 1850 account of the educational process describes how young men were trained for college or careers in business, and young women were trained to be daughters, wives, sisters, mothers, companions, and teachers who would determine the morals, manners, and intelligence of the community.  Whereas the presence of female teachers probably encouraged learning activities for females, it probably "discouraged boys from seeking teaching as a viable and worthy profession for themselves" (168).


A career path with minimal advancement

Because of their point of entry into the field as well as other factors resulting from gender, male teachers do not encounter the same barriers to advancement as their female coworkers. These males do not question the means by which their status and benefits were gained nor do they examine why their counterparts in the elementary sector have not attained the same degree of success as they (Spender, 19??).

An individual's advancement opportunities in the internal labor market are generally determined by a worker's original entry level job.  Thus, because women usually start out usually start out as elementary teachers, they have little hope of following the usual path to the superintendent's chair.  Different entry level positions in occupational areas and firms are linked with different career lines.  Because women enter the labor force at different positions than men the stratification of the work force will be reproduced and pay will be unequally distributed by gender. (Stockard, 1980)

Because of their point of entry into the field as well as other factors resulting from gender, male teachers do not encounter the same barriers to advancement as their female coworkers. These males do not question the means by which their status and benefits were gained nor do they examine why their counterparts in the elementary sector have not attained the same degree of success as they (Spender, 19??).


Trends

There is evidence of a trend across the majority of occupations toward increasing gender equality.  While most traditionally masculine professions have become increasingly more open to women, the teaching profession has begun to balance itself gender-wise.  A 1980 report by the National Center for Educational Statistics graphically describes how the population of secondary teachers (including junior high) has gone from 33% to 50% male in the half century from 1925 to 1975.  However, males have not significantly entered the profession at the elementary level.  In 1925 only 10% of all elementary teachers were male, compared with 14% in 1975.  On the other hand the gender character of elementary school principals has moved drastically away from equality.  While males composed 45% of all elementary school principals in 1925, the profession is now 80% male dominated in spite of the fact that 90% of the elementary teaching force being women (Apple, 1986).

In Britain the statistics parallel our own.  Female undergraduates were four times more likely to enter a teacher training than men.  In light of the fact that males outnumber females two to one at the undergraduate level, sexual stratification in other professions is clearly occurring.  In light of the fact that women outnumber men in the field of teaching so greatly, it is surprising that the minority of males hold positions of authority in significantly greater numbers, more than four to one (Reid, 19??).
 

Devaluation of the profession
Examples of the historical devaluation of teachers can be found in any one of the numerous government designed, “teacher-proof” curricular programs which were systematic, based in rigorous academic foundations (every thing completely contrary to the teacher initiated movement to concern teaching more with students feelings and less with strict academics). These were implemented most sweepingly in the elementary schools.  Materials were provided at little or no cost to school administration. Principals naturally accepted these programs with open arms, then put pressure on teachers to implement them.  This movement is a good representation of  the general attitude from higher up (from everyone from direct supervisors to the federal and state government) that teachers weren't sophisticated enough to implement their own curriculum and design accompanying materials (Apple, 1986).


Rationale for this study

What leads either sex to enter the teaching profession is a question not asked in the literature.  Moreover, the fact that men go against the stereotype into a profession dominated by women makes this question more interesting than others concerning similar life and career decisions.  This study would begin to open some insights into why males become teachers.  The reasons why some 30-40% of the overall teaching population entered the profession could be explored.

It is widely recognized in the literature that males are more highly valued as employees than females.  Stockard (1980) tells us that a few decades ago it was common practice to pay men teachers more than women teachers simply because they were men.  Just as men as reluctant to hire women as fellow administrators for fear this would lower the prestige of their post, paying teachers as much as administrators would also challenge male superiority (111).  By moving toward a more gender-neutral population in the workforce of today's educational system the rationale for the difference in pay between teachers disappears.  This study could be used to examine issues which would lead to this level of equality.

Secondary teaching is one of the least gender biased professions in this country.  Yet, the fact that the elementary sector is overwhelmingly female and administrators of all levels are predominately males marks education as a very biased area.  What makes secondary teaching so unique in the field of education that it draws roughly equal numbers of men and women?  This study will explore the underlying reasons which could explain this anomaly.

Additionally, this research could serve as a model for others to start looking into other areas of this question, such as the specific reasons why women become teachers, how men are valued (or women devalued) in the profession and the manifestations of this valuement, or other more narrowly focused questions.


Theory

O'Kelly (1980) reports that research on the roles of teachers has not been performed primarily because it is considered a female-dominated occupation.  Second, the professional aspect of the teacher's role has been ignored because researchers have been "blinded by the sexist assumption that these female workers are not primarily professionals, but rather are wives and mothers who also do some work as teachers (18).  O'Kelly summarizes Brown's (19??) work in the area.  The sexual division of labor is common throughout societies across the world.  Childbearing and rearing help tie women down to the domestic sphere and hinder their participation in the public sphere.

Society partitions our lives through perceptions of professions and gender and their often imagined interconnectedness.  Yet Richmond-Abbott (1983) points out that, whether for good or bad, male and female teachers do not behave a great deal differently at least in studies concerning how teachers of both genders enforced the sex roles of their students.


Teaching as "Women's Work"

Perhaps one reason teaching is considered a "feminine" profession is because it is structured such that it is convenient for women's lives as wives and mothers.  The compressed workday coincides with children's school hours and work can be found close to home.  The low pay is presumably a trade-off for compatibility with caring for children.  However, in nineteenth century rural America, where teaching could be performed casually for short periods of time, the profession was particularly well suited for men.  A farmer could teach temporarily while awaiting harvest, or a farmer might instruct members of his flock in more secular matters outside of the sabbath, thereby gaining more visibility in his community (Lorber).

Stockard (1980) reports that an 1850 account of the educational process describes how young men were trained for college or careers in business, and young women were trained to be daughters, wives, sisters, mothers, companions, and teachers who would determine the morals, manners, and intelligence of the community.  Whereas the presence of female teachers probably encouraged learning activities for females, it probably "discouraged boys from seeking teaching as a viable and worthy profession for themselves" (168).


Trends

There is evidence of a trend across the majority of occupations toward increasing gender equality.  While most traditionally masculine professions have become increasingly more open to women, the teaching profession has begun to balance itself gender-wise.  A 1980 report by the National Center for Educational Statistics graphically describes how the population of secondary teachers (including junior high) has gone from 33% to 50% male in the half century from 1925 to 1975.  However, males have not significantly entered the profession at the elementary level.  In 1925 only 10% of all elementary teachers were male, compared with 14% in 1975.  On the other hand the gender character of elementary school principals has moved drastically away from equality.  While males composed 45% of all elementary school principals in 1925, the profession is now 80% male dominated in spite of the fact that 90% of the elementary teaching force being women. (Apple)

In Britain the statistics parallel our own.  Female undergraduates were four times more likely to enter a teacher training than men.  In light of the fact that males outnumber females two to one at the undergraduate level, sexual stratification in other professions is clearly occurring.  Considering that women outnumber men in the field of teaching so greatly, it is surprising that the minority of males hold positions of authority in significantly greater numbers, more than four to one (Reid, 19??).


New theory

An individual's advancement opportunities in the internal labor market are generally determined by a worker's original entry level job.  Thus, because women usually start out usually start out as elementary teachers, they have little hope of following the usual path to the superintendent's chair.  Different entry level positions in occupational areas and firms are linked with different career lines.  Because women enter the labor force at different positions than men the stratification of the work force will be reproduced and pay will be unequally distributed by gender (Stockard, 1980).


Rationale

What leads either sex to enter the teaching profession is a question not asked in the literature.  Moreover, the fact that men go against the stereotype into a profession dominated by women makes this question more interesting than others concerning similar life and career decisions.  This study would begin to open some insights into why males become teachers.  The reasons why some 30-40% of the overall teaching population entered the profession could be explored.

It is widely recognized in the literature that males are more highly valued as employees than females.  Stockard (1980) tells us that a few decades ago it was common practice to pay men teachers more than women teachers simply because they were men.  Just as men are reluctant to hire women as fellow administrators for fear this would lower the prestige of their post, paying teachers as much as administrators would also challenge male superiority (111).  By moving toward a more gender-neutral population in the workforce of today's educational system the rationale for the difference in pay between teachers disappears.

This study might be used to examine issues which would lead to this level of equality.  By examining what caused men to enter the profession at the secondary level the door to a parallel study has been opened, in which a subsequent researcher might explore the motivations of women in this area.  Are women only entering teaching not as professionals, but as an aside from their domestic duties?  If research turns up that this ancient stereotype is unfounded the fight for equality in the workforce might be advanced further.

Secondary teaching is one of the least gender biased professions in this country.  Yet, the fact that the elementary sector is overwhelmingly female and administrators of all levels are predominately males marks education as a very biased area.  What makes secondary teaching so unique in the field of education that it draws roughly equal numbers of men and women?  This study proposes to examine the underlying reasons to could explain this anomaly.

Additionally, this research could serve as a model for others to start looking into other areas of this question, such as the specific reasons why women become teachers, how men are valued (or women devalued) in the profession and the manifestations of this valuement, or other more focused questions.


II. Methodology and triangulation
The nature of this question requires that the researcher do a fair share of observing and measuring.  Case studies of three secondary science teachers will provide insight into the personal decisions which lead a male into the so-called "feminine" profession of teaching.  A solitary survey or interview will not explore as deeply as this sort of question demands.  The answers to this question require that the methods used be deep, rich, and real.  Questions will be largely open-ended.  Those questions to which subjects respond with only a yes or no answer will be explored further to uncover the basis for those answers.

To account for the effect of present emotional state in recalling the past processes which lead to the decision to enter teaching, journals and other past writing will be reviewed wherever possible.

As a male teacher myself, autobiography will figure into this study as well, although to what extent is not known at this time.  Even if I could claim complete objectivity in this investigation, the very fact that I am exactly what I am studying is relevant and should be utilized.  My probes into my subjects' motivations to enter this field will, of course, be applied to myself.  As the one subject in this study to whom the researcher has potentially limitless access, I will contribute data from my journal and answers to the same questions as those asked of my subjects.

Additionally, the fact that I am the subject will at all times allow me to serve as a tuning fork for emerging themes.  In other words certain harmonies of motivation should ring out between myself and my subjects wherever common themes are encountered.  In other words, should I come across a common motivation during my research it will be more prominent to me as a participant than as an outside researcher.

Triangulation between the three methods of case study, journal review, and autobiography will ensure more valid results.


Sampling

 Participants will include male teachers, with science or mathematics backgrounds in degree or previous work experience (in industry, for example).  These will be the subjects they are currently teaching.   Those teachers with a degree in hard science or mathematics magnify the difference between entering a field which could potentially gain them a substantially higher salary and the teaching profession for which they receive considerably less status or recognition.  These participants will best represent the question under investigation.


Context

 The ideal setting for this questioning process will be in the school, the basis of the study itself.  The context of the subjects' answers will be more applicable to the question if formulated in an environment which is relevant to the question itself.


Description of procedures for handling/analyzing/interacting with data

 Obviously these results will not be readily quantifiable.  This study attempts to honestly explore the motivations of the participants, not to statistically analyze its subjects.  Subjects responses will be examined for common themes.  Wherever unifying data is discovered subjects will be reexamined in a follow interview and these recurring themes will be explored.


Timeline

A total of approximately 12 weeks will be required for the collection of data, its analysis, and the preparation of a report on the findings.

III. Discussion
These are ungeneralizable answers.  They certainly will not be applicable to all situations and circumstances, and possibly will be contrary many considering the small sampling of the teaching population which case studies allow.  One serious disadvantage of a case study is that, while the validity of the question (as applied to the subject) increases, the sampling size is reduced dramatically.

The sampling of only two or three male science teachers does not allow an enormous amount of generalization beyond the subjects themselves.  The personal nature of the choices made in their lives may be vastly different from those of another group of "comparable" subjects.

Because of the complexity of the personal issues and life experiences of the subjects, it is possible this study may turn up no emerging themes between subjects.  There may in fact be no one single path to a career in teaching.  This study may describe as many separate paths to teacherhood as subjects studied.  There may be a countless number more paths and/or common themes than can be inferred from the few subjects examined here.

The answers to the questions asked here may be tempered with a large amount of hindsight.  Personal recall, particularly in personal, highly emotional areas may be hard to accurately reconstruct.  Personal revisionist history may result in trying to rationalize the decisions made in the past with the circumstances in the present.  For example, if the present teaching situation is dissatisfactory, the subject may not recall the common idealistic attitude which he held as a student teacher.  Journals can only tell the answers which are contained within them.  Questions cannot be asked of them which they do not hold the answers to already.

Without knowing the entire life history of the subjects we cannot know the connotations behind every word used in the dialogue between researcher and subject.  Some subjects may find certain words loaded with meaning which their cohorts in this study missed or failed to share.  Likewise, this researcher may miss the loaded nature of the subjects' answers.


References
The World Almanac and Book of Facts. (1993) Mark S. Hoffman, Editor.  Scripps Howard Company.

Apple, Michael W. Teachers and Texts. (1986) Routledge & Kegan Paul Inc., New York.

Basow, Susan A. and Suzan Distenfield. (1985) Teacher Expressiveness: More Important for Male Teachers Than Female Teachers?" Journal of Educational Psychology vol.77, no.1: 45-62.

Bennett, Sheila Kishler. (1982) Student Perceptions of and Expectations for Male and Female Instructors: Evidence Relating to the Question of Gender Bias in Teaching Evaluation." Journal of Educational Psychology vol.74, no.2: 170-179.

Glick, Peter, Korin Wilk, and Michele Perreault. (1995) Images of Occupations: Components of Gender Status in Occupational Stereotypes.  Sex Roles, Vol 32, Nos 9/10.

Ivan, Reid and Eileen Wormald. (1982) Sex Differences in Britain.  Grant McIntyre Publishing Limited.  London.

Lee, Valerie, Anthony S. Bryk, and Julia B. Smith. (1993) The Organization of Effective Secondary  Schools. Review of Research in Education vol.19.  American Educational Research Association.

Lee, Valerie, Susanna Loeb, and Helen M. Marks. (1995) Gender Differences in Secondary School Teachers' Control over Classroom and School Policy.  American Journal of Education vol.103, no. 3: 259-301.

Lorber, Judity. (1994) Paradoxes of Gender.  Vail-Ballou Press. Birmingham, New York.

O'Kelly, Charlotte. (1980) Women and Men in Society.  Litton Education Publishing, Inc.  New York.

Richmond-Abbott, Marie. (1983) Masculine and Feminine: Sex Roles Over the Life Cycle.  Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.  Reading, Massachusetts.

Stockard, Jean, et. al. (1980) Sex Equality in Education.  Academic Press, Inc.  New York.

Street, Sue, Jeffery D. Kromley, and Ellen Kimmel. (1995) University Faculty Gender Role Perceptions. Sex Roles, vol 32, Nos 5/6, .

Thompson, Michael L. and Joseph R. Ellis. (1984) Identifying and Comparing Anxieties Experienced by Male and Female Secondary Student Teachers.  College Student Journal vol.18, no.3): 289-300.

Tyack, David B. and Myra H. Strober. (1981) Educational Policy and Management.  Edited by Patricia A. Schmuck, et al. Academic Press, New York.


Appendix A: Participant Consent Form
 
Title of Study: Why do males enter the teaching profession?
Project Director: Alexplorer
phone: [no longer valid]
email: [no longer valid]

Purpose of Research
To explore the life decisions and person characteristics which led to males' entry into the teaching profession.

Procedures of the research
Interviewing and examination of journal writings, etc. from the time of entry into the field of teaching.

Potential risks and Protection of Confidentiality
Invasion of privacy is very subjective.  What some may construe as a casual question can be very upsetting to others.  As a researcher my goal is to accurately answer my questions to the greatest extent possible, therefore my digging for answers may impose on your privacy.  As a subject in a research project you have the right to set up any barriers to the prying of any research.  This includes limiting questions and explorations into areas you consider too private in nature.  Please feel free to stop me at any time.  Be aware that you also have the freedom to ask that your name not be used in the publication of this study.  Your participation is entirely voluntary and you may withdraw consent and terminate participation at any time without consequence.

Potential benefits
A significant benefit is that, because you were selected as a subject, the results of this research will be relevant to you.  The information you provide in this research will be included with information from subjects similar to you in some ways.  I believe that the answers uncovered by this research will be very interesting to you, so I encourage you to examine them with me as they are revealed.
 

"I have been fully informed of the above-described procedure with its possible benefits and risks and I give my permission for my participation in this study."

Signature:    ________________________________


Appendix B: Possible case study questions:
Because no study has been performed like this a questionnaire was designed.  If there exists a questionnaire in the literature concerning this topic is will be used.  These questions are presented in working form and are in no particular order.  They are compiled here from a number of sources including my journal and several notebooks.  They are in no particular order of importance, subject, etc.  Some questions do not obviously get at the issue directly under study and some apparently irrelevant questions have been not been removed.  These were generated through brainstorming and many be possible starting points for other questions.

All contents copyright Alexplorer.
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