Mutations notes
I Types of Mutations:

What is a point mutation?  What are a few disorders associated with this type of mutation?
 
 
 
 

What is trisomy?  What is the main disorder associated with this type of mutation?
 
 
 
 

What disorders are associated with the physical breaking of a chromosome?
 
 
 
 

What is a frame-shift?  What type of changes in your DNA could cause one?
 
 
 
 

Give an example of the various types of mutations listed below by appropriately “mutating” the sentence representing the original code.
Original code:  thecatsatonthemat   (notice there are no spaces between codons)

Point mutation (aka substitution):

Insertion:

Deletion:

Inversion:

Frame-shift:

Translocation:
 

II Causes of Mutations:

What is a thymine dimer, and what causes one to be produced? (Include a diagram.)
 
 
 
 

What do x-rays do to your DNA? (Be. specific.)
 
 
 
 

What are base analogues?  What do they do with your DNA?
 
 
 
 
 

What is a carcinogen?
 
 
 
 

III Effects of Mutations:

On a molecular level, what are some possible effects of a point mutation your genetic code?  Think back to the processes described in the Gene to Protein unit.  How might a point mutation affect the final product?
 
 
 
 
 
 

What is a silent mutation?
 
 
 
 
 

What are some benefits of genetic screening and genetic counseling to society?
 
 
 
 
 

IV Intro to next unit:

-The follow questions require short, focused essays (more than 3 or 4 sentences).  Your responses should be typed.  You may email your work to me.

Thinking scientifically, what are some obvious differences between the mutations we
Uhave studied and a comic book super hero version of a mutant?

We have mainly been studying mutations in a bad light.  However, genetic variation can be beneficial to a population.  Describe in some detail (in other words, use a concrete example) how this might be?

What happens when there is an extreme lack of variation in a population?


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